The most important advances between AI and neuroscience are the development of artificial neural networks and deep learning. These models are inspired by the biological structure and functioning of the human brain. They are capable of processing large amounts of data, learning patterns, and making predictions. Artificial neural networks are not yet capable of simulating the full complexity of the human brain. However, they have provided valuable insight into the principles governing neural processing.
The convergence of AI and neuroscience provides opportunities to unlock the secrets of the human brain. Advances in AI-powered neural networks, brain-computer interfaces, and connectomics have already generated valuable insights. As we continue to explore this fascinating frontier, the ethical implications of our work need to be considered for a responsible approach.
Emotion Regulation in Adolescents: Evidence of the Validity and Factor Structure of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ)
Rodriguez, J., Betegón, E., Del Valle, M. e Irurtia, M.J. (2022)
The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) is an assessment tool to evaluate cognitive emotion regulation strategies. The main objective of this study is to provide new empirical evidence about the validity and reliability of the CERQ via a sample of 271 Spanish adolescents (136 female, 135 male) aged from 15 to 18 years (M = 15.7, SD = 0.76). The analytical process was carried out in two phases. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the polychoric correlation matrix between items. Four possible alternative models were contrasted: two models with nine factors and two models with two second-order factors and nine first-order factors, with 36 and 27 items, respectively.
The model with nine correlated factors and 27 items obtained the best indices of overall fit. Subsequently, the reliability of the measurements was estimated on this model. The results reaffirm the validity of the 27-item version of the CERQ over the original 36-item structure. The findings also confirm that the CERQ is a reliable instrument for the evaluation of emotion regulation strategies in adolescents.
Visual Thinking and Image Reading in Education Degree Students
Urchegui Bocos, P., Betegón Blanca, E., Carramolino Arranz, B., & Irurtia Muñiz, M. J. (2021)
Visual Thinking (VT) is a cognitive construct that is increasingly relevant to explain the mental representation we make of the world and the surround reality, based on perception and spatial reasoning. These concepts are associated with intelligence and are significant for education in both the artistic and scientific fields. We carried out a descriptive investigation of the VT construct with 314 students of the Degree in Education at the Universities of Valladolid (Spain), Boston and Harvard (USA).
The Visual Thinking Scale (VTS) carried out ad hoc is used for the analysis of visualization factors (static and dynamic), proportional reasoning and image reading. The static visualization deficit stands out in the visual references of the visual field itself and this is linked to the objective reading (structural and optical-geometric) of the image. Proportional reasoning in the analysis of shapes and angles shows notable differences between its conceptual consideration and visual reading. Considering the relationship between the different representation systems used in educational modeling (graphics, maps, drawings, photographs and their forms of animation), a cognitive approximation of this deficit is established with the difficulties of graphic interpretation, in both the creation and the visual interpretation of these resources.
Neuropsychological Sequelae in Attention and Memory in Women Victims of Gender-Based Violence and Their Implication in Depression. A Multivariate Analysis
Torres García, A.V., Perez Fernandez, M., Vega-Hernández, M.C. y Anón Rubio C. (2021)
Women victims of abuse can suffer neuropsychological sequelae that affect memory and attention, as well psychopathological disorders such as depression. These consequences affect their daily life and physical and psychological health. Objective: To analyze sequelae that affect attention and memory, as well a possible association of these sequelae to depression. Method: A total of 68 women victims of gender-based violence participated in the study. The participants were between 15 and 62 years of age and resided in Spain at the time of data collection. The Luria DNA Battery (Neuropsychological Diagnosis of Adults) by Manga and Ramos (2000); and the Beck Depression Inventory were applied. Results: Women victims of gender-based violence suffer neuropsychological sequelae, presenting low short-term memory and attentional control; and score low on the Luria-DNA battery. Of these women, 60% suffer from some relevant type of depression, and there are significant differences according to their degree of memory. Through the HJ-Biplot, a direct relationship was found between memory and attentional control with the total score of the Luria battery. On the other hand, an inverse relationship was found between short-term memory and depression. Lastly, three well-differentiated gender clusters of women victims of gender-based violence were identified. Conclusions: A lower rate of depression is observed in women victims of abuse when they have a more intact short-term memory.
We participate in the RuralCare project from the GIR of the Department of Psychology, together with other departments, university and technological institutes participated by the University of Valladolid. RuralCare is a European innovation project in social services consisting of the design, testing and evaluation of an innovative systemic approach, for the provision of integrated long-term care, adapted to people living in rural areas depending on their values, desires and individual preferences. The project performs a segmentation of households at risk, considering not only the individual situation, but also their environment. 4 types of HR (home at risk) and 11 subtypes are defined. The classification is carried out considering the following variables: one-person household or household in which more than one person coexists, degree of dependency, characteristics of the main caregiver and presence or absence of cognitive impairment. The conditions of households are improved by proximity services, family support, health care, adaptations of the household products, support and participation in the community. The role of the case coordinator and personal assistants are strengthened. They guide their support towards the development of the Person’s Life Project. There will be developed changes in the technical instruments of interventions and new protocols of proactive care to chronic diseases as a plan of individual support. The project has started on October 1st of 2020 and will last 36 months.
We collaborate with the Association ‘Growing in Nepal‘, a non-profit organization, based in various Spanish cities, which supports the work of the Poor & Helpless Girls Home, a shelter located in the city of Kathmandu (Nepal) in the that twenty-five girls are given shelter, maintenance and access to education, with the fundamental aim of being present in the lives of all of them and helping them grow, with all that this implies. In 2016, we participated in a series of Neuro-education, Mindfulness and Visual Thinking workshops, which helped the girls learn about the possibilities of communication, through positive affect, mindfulness and the rich and complex world of emotions.
Visual Thinking: how the brain understands and represents what we see
Urchegui, P. (2019)
The concept of Visual Thinking is introduced by Rudolph Arnheim, who published a book with this title in 1969. It is the work of a psychologist interested in the processes of perception and visual reasoning who uses examples of art as a developed expression of these processes.
However, Visual Thinking is a construct that explains the mental, artistic and scientific representation that we make of the world and the reality that surrounds us.
Effect of the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on reading comprehension and calculation skills in adolescents
del Valle, M., M., Zamora, E. V., Andrés, M. L., Irrurtia, M. J., y Urquijo, S. (2019).
The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on the academic skills (calculation and reading comprehension) of adolescent population. To this end, the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Reading Competency Test for Secondary Education and the arithmetic subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test, were administered to 65 participants (gender: F: 40, M: 22; age: ME = 15.52, DE = .69). Students belonged to a concerted school from the city of Valladolid, Spain. The results indicate that the use of maladaptive strategies -and not the use of adaptive strategies- explains the performance on academic skills tests. The results are discussed in relation to the literature, highlighting the negative effects of the use of maladaptive strategies such as Rumination, Catastrophizing and Self-blaming, on learning.
We collaborate with the CINA Lab Group, which aims to design assessment tools for attention in children and adults. Working on the development of different tests in digital version that include eye tracking devices for the quantification of the information obtained, studies are being carried out to evaluate the differences that result between the use of paper and digital versions. In addition, the incorporation of eye-tracking is being carried out during the administration of the scales, which allows the collection of extremely valuable information that enhances the desired evaluation.