Emotion Regulation in Adolescents: Evidence of the Validity and Factor Structure of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ)
Rodriguez, J., Betegón, E., Del Valle, M. e Irurtia, M.J. (2022)
The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) is an assessment tool to evaluate cognitive emotion regulation strategies. The main objective of this study is to provide new empirical evidence about the validity and reliability of the CERQ via a sample of 271 Spanish adolescents (136 female, 135 male) aged from 15 to 18 years (M = 15.7, SD = 0.76). The analytical process was carried out in two phases. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the polychoric correlation matrix between items. Four possible alternative models were contrasted: two models with nine factors and two models with two second-order factors and nine first-order factors, with 36 and 27 items, respectively.
The model with nine correlated factors and 27 items obtained the best indices of overall fit. Subsequently, the reliability of the measurements was estimated on this model. The results reaffirm the validity of the 27-item version of the CERQ over the original 36-item structure. The findings also confirm that the CERQ is a reliable instrument for the evaluation of emotion regulation strategies in adolescents.
Visual Thinking and Image Reading in Education Degree Students
Urchegui Bocos, P., Betegón Blanca, E., Carramolino Arranz, B., & Irurtia Muñiz, M. J. (2021)
Visual Thinking (VT) is a cognitive construct that is increasingly relevant to explain the mental representation we make of the world and the surround reality, based on perception and spatial reasoning. These concepts are associated with intelligence and are significant for education in both the artistic and scientific fields. We carried out a descriptive investigation of the VT construct with 314 students of the Degree in Education at the Universities of Valladolid (Spain), Boston and Harvard (USA).
The Visual Thinking Scale (VTS) carried out ad hoc is used for the analysis of visualization factors (static and dynamic), proportional reasoning and image reading. The static visualization deficit stands out in the visual references of the visual field itself and this is linked to the objective reading (structural and optical-geometric) of the image. Proportional reasoning in the analysis of shapes and angles shows notable differences between its conceptual consideration and visual reading. Considering the relationship between the different representation systems used in educational modeling (graphics, maps, drawings, photographs and their forms of animation), a cognitive approximation of this deficit is established with the difficulties of graphic interpretation, in both the creation and the visual interpretation of these resources.
Neuropsychological Sequelae in Attention and Memory in Women Victims of Gender-Based Violence and Their Implication in Depression. A Multivariate Analysis
Torres García, A.V., Perez Fernandez, M., Vega-Hernández, M.C. y Anón Rubio C. (2021)
Women victims of abuse can suffer neuropsychological sequelae that affect memory and attention, as well psychopathological disorders such as depression. These consequences affect their daily life and physical and psychological health. Objective: To analyze sequelae that affect attention and memory, as well a possible association of these sequelae to depression. Method: A total of 68 women victims of gender-based violence participated in the study. The participants were between 15 and 62 years of age and resided in Spain at the time of data collection. The Luria DNA Battery (Neuropsychological Diagnosis of Adults) by Manga and Ramos (2000); and the Beck Depression Inventory were applied. Results: Women victims of gender-based violence suffer neuropsychological sequelae, presenting low short-term memory and attentional control; and score low on the Luria-DNA battery. Of these women, 60% suffer from some relevant type of depression, and there are significant differences according to their degree of memory. Through the HJ-Biplot, a direct relationship was found between memory and attentional control with the total score of the Luria battery. On the other hand, an inverse relationship was found between short-term memory and depression. Lastly, three well-differentiated gender clusters of women victims of gender-based violence were identified. Conclusions: A lower rate of depression is observed in women victims of abuse when they have a more intact short-term memory.
Visual Thinking: how the brain understands and represents what we see
Urchegui, P. (2019)
The concept of Visual Thinking is introduced by Rudolph Arnheim, who published a book with this title in 1969. It is the work of a psychologist interested in the processes of perception and visual reasoning who uses examples of art as a developed expression of these processes.
However, Visual Thinking is a construct that explains the mental, artistic and scientific representation that we make of the world and the reality that surrounds us.
Effect of the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on reading comprehension and calculation skills in adolescents
del Valle, M., M., Zamora, E. V., Andrés, M. L., Irrurtia, M. J., y Urquijo, S. (2019).
The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on the academic skills (calculation and reading comprehension) of adolescent population. To this end, the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Reading Competency Test for Secondary Education and the arithmetic subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test, were administered to 65 participants (gender: F: 40, M: 22; age: ME = 15.52, DE = .69). Students belonged to a concerted school from the city of Valladolid, Spain. The results indicate that the use of maladaptive strategies -and not the use of adaptive strategies- explains the performance on academic skills tests. The results are discussed in relation to the literature, highlighting the negative effects of the use of maladaptive strategies such as Rumination, Catastrophizing and Self-blaming, on learning.
Anxiety and social phobia in adolescents: when disorders are hidden
Irurtia, M.J. (2019)
Anxiety is a response that all human beings have and appears when our brain perceives a threat that puts our lives at risk. Therefore, anxiety prepares us for what may happen, looking for solutions that put us safe. This experience has an important adaptive value for survival.
The conflict arises when our brain triggers the alarms and we feel palpitations, sweat, choking and even panic. These symptoms paralyze and create a threatening world in everyday situations, which we interpret as a real danger.
Effectiveness of a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for family caregivers of people with dementia. Systematic review of randomised clinical trials
Grandi, F., Burgueño, L. y Irurtia, M.J. (2019)
Family caregivers of people with dementia usually have high levels of anxiety, depression, and overload symptoms, and are reasons for being considered a clinically vulnerable population. The objective of the present review is to examine the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program (MBSR) applied to this population. A search was made in the electronic databases for randomised trials with pre-post measurement in the last 15 years. The methodological quality was obtained using the Jadad scale. Finally, 5 articles were included, obtaining a sample of 309 participants. The score on the Jadad scale was 3.4 out of 5. In general, the MBSR program reduces anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as overload levels in the post-measurement. However, some studies showed a significant reduction in the psychological effects of the program during follow-up. More empirical studies are needed that can establish a more homogeneous protocol that reduces the ambiguity of some results.
Effect of the use of cognitive emotional regulation strategies on anxiety levels in Spanish adolescents
del Valle, M., Betegón, E. y Irurtia, M.J. (2018)
The way in which people regulate their emotions is related to the appearance, course and development of a broad spectrum of psychopathologies. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the use of cognitive emotional regulation strategies on high school students’ anxiety level. To this end, the Spanish adaptation of the CER-Q and the Spanish adaptation of the STAI were applied to a sample of 266 high school students. A multiple linear regression model was proposed, where anxiety level was the dependent variable, and the use frequencies of emotional regulation strategies were the independent variables. Gender was also considered as an independent variable since the data showed differences in anxiety level and in the use of emotional regulation strategies between male and female subjects. The model explained 46.3% of the variance, and the predictive variables were Self-blame, Positive Reinterpretation, Catastrophizing, Rumination and gender. Based on the findings and the previous literature, it is suggested that the use of adaptive strategies of emotional regulation promotes lower levels of anxiety, and the use of maladaptive strategies results in higher levels of anxiety.