Visual Thinking: how the brain understands and represents what we see
Pedro Urchegui Bocos
The concept of Visual Thinking is introduced by Rudolph Arnheim, who published a book with this title in 1969. It is the work of a psychologist interested in the processes of perception and visual reasoning who uses examples of art as a developed expression of these processes.
However, Visual Thinking is a construct that explains the mental, artistic and scientific representation that we make of the world and the reality that surrounds us.
Effect of the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on reading comprehension and calculation skills in adolescents
del Valle, M., M., Zamora, E. V., Andrés, M. L., Irrurtia, M. J., y Urquijo, S. (2019).
The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on the academic skills (calculation and reading comprehension) of adolescent population. To this end, the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Reading Competency Test for Secondary Education and the arithmetic subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test, were administered to 65 participants (gender: F: 40, M: 22; age: ME = 15.52, DE = .69). Students belonged to a concerted school from the city of Valladolid, Spain. The results indicate that the use of maladaptive strategies -and not the use of adaptive strategies- explains the performance on academic skills tests. The results are discussed in relation to the literature, highlighting the negative effects of the use of maladaptive strategies such as Rumination, Catastrophizing and Self-blaming, on learning.
Anxiety and social phobia in adolescents: when disorders are hidden
Anxiety is a response that all human beings have and appears when our brain perceives a threat that puts our lives at risk. Therefore, anxiety prepares us for what may happen, looking for solutions that put us safe. This experience has an important adaptive value for survival.
The conflict arises when our brain triggers the alarms and we feel palpitations, sweat, choking and even panic. These symptoms paralyze and create a threatening world in everyday situations, which we interpret as a real danger.
Effectiveness of a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for family caregivers of people with dementia. Systematic review of randomised clinical trials
Fabrissio Grandi, Lucas Burgueño, María Jesús Irurtia
Family caregivers of people with dementia usually have high levels of anxiety, depression, and overload symptoms, and are reasons for being considered a clinically vulnerable population. The objective of the present review is to examine the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program (MBSR) applied to this population. A search was made in the electronic databases for randomised trials with pre-post measurement in the last 15 years. The methodological quality was obtained using the Jadad scale. Finally, 5 articles were included, obtaining a sample of 309 participants. The score on the Jadad scale was 3.4 out of 5. In general, the MBSR program reduces anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as overload levels in the post-measurement. However, some studies showed a significant reduction in the psychological effects of the program during follow-up. More empirical studies are needed that can establish a more homogeneous protocol that reduces the ambiguity of some results.
Effect of the use of cognitive emotional regulation strategies on anxiety levels in Spanish adolescents
Macarena del Valle, Elena Betegón & María Jesús Irurtia
The way in which people regulate their emotions is related to the appearance, course and development of a broad spectrum of psychopathologies. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the use of cognitive emotional regulation strategies on high school students’ anxiety level. To this end, the Spanish adaptation of the CER-Q and the Spanish adaptation of the STAI were applied to a sample of 266 high school students. A multiple linear regression model was proposed, where anxiety level was the dependent variable, and the use frequencies of emotional regulation strategies were the independent variables. Gender was also considered as an independent variable since the data showed differences in anxiety level and in the use of emotional regulation strategies between male and female subjects. The model explained 46.3% of the variance, and the predictive variables were Self-blame, Positive Reinterpretation, Catastrophizing, Rumination and gender. Based on the findings and the previous literature, it is suggested that the use of adaptive strategies of emotional regulation promotes lower levels of anxiety, and the use of maladaptive strategies results in higher levels of anxiety.